## UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement

- What is physics?
- Scope and excitement of physics
- Nature of physical laws
- Physics, technology and society
- Need for measurement: Units of measurement
- Systems of units: SI units, fundamental and derived units.
- Measurement of Length,
- Measurement of mass
- Measurement of time
- Accuracy, precision of measuring instruments and errors in measurement;
- Significant figures
- Dimensions of physical quantities,
- Dimensional analysis and its applications.

## UNIT II: Kinematics

- Frame of reference
- Motion in a straight line
- Position-time graph
- Speed and velocity
- Uniform and non-uniform motion
- Average speed and instantaneous velocity
- Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment)
- Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
- Scalar and vector quantities:
- Position and displacement vectors,
- General vectors,
- General vectors and notation,
- Equality of vectors,
- Multiplication of vectors by a real number;
- Addition and subtraction of vectors.
- Relative velocity.
- Unit vectors.
- Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
- Scalar and Vector products of Vectors.
- Motion in a plane.
- Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion.
- Uniform circular motion.

## UNIT III: Laws of Motion

- Intuitive concept of force.
- Inertia,
- Newton’s first law of motion;
- Momentum
- Newton’s second law of motion;
- Impulse;
- Newton’s third law of motion.
- Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
- Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
- Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion.
- Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

## UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power

- Work done by a constant force and variable force;
- Kinetic energy,
- Work-energy theorem,
- Power.
- Notion of potential energy,
- Potential energy of a spring,
- Conservative forces;
- Conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);
- Non-conservative forces;
- Motion in a vertical circle,
- Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

## UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

- Centre of mass of a two-particle system,
- Momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
- Centre of mass of a rigid body;
- Centre of mass of uniform rod.
- Moment of a force,
- Torque, angular momentum,
- Conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
- Equilibrium of rigid bodies,
- Rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion,
- Comparison of linear and rotational motions;
- Moment of inertia,
- Radius of gyration.
- Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).
- Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

## UNIT VI: Gravitation

- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.
- The universal law of gravitation.
- Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
- Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.
- Escape velocity,
- Orbital velocity of a satellite.
- Geostationary satellites.

## UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

- Elastic behavior,
- Stress-strain relationship.
- Hooke’s law,
- Young’s modulus,
- Bulk modulus,
- Shear,
- Modulus of rigidity,
- Poisson’s ratio;
- Elastic energy.
- Viscosity,
- Stokes’ law,
- Terminal velocity,
- Reynold’s number,
- Streamline andcturbulent flow.
- Critical velocity,
- Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
- Surface energy and surface tension,
- Angle of contact,
- Excess of pressure,
- Application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
- Heat, temperature, thermal expansion;
- Thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases.
- Anomalous expansion.
- Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv-
- Calorimetry;
- Change of state – latent heat.
- Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity,
- Convection and radiation.
- Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation,
- Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
- Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

## UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics

- Thermal equilibrium
- Definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics).
- Heat, work and internal energy.
- First law of thermodynamics.
- Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
- Second law of the thermodynamics:
- Reversible and irreversible processes.
- Heat engines and refrigerators.

## UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

- Equation of state of a perfect gas,
- Work done on compressing a gas.
- Kinetic theory of gases:
- Assumptions, concept of pressure.
- Kinetic energy and temperature;
- Degrees of freedom,
- Law of equipartition of energy (statement only)
- Application to specific heat capacities of gases;
- Concept of mean free path.

## UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves

- Periodic motion-
- Period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.
- Periodic functions.
- Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation;
- Phase;
- Oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant;
- Energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies;
- Simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period;
- Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only),
- Resonance.
- Wave motion.
- Longitudinal and transverse waves,
- Speed of wave motion.
- Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
- Principle of superposition of waves,
- Reflection of waves,
- Standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
- Fundamental mode and harmonics.
- Beats. Doppler effect.