# Physics Syllabus-Wise Notes (Class 11)

## UNIT II: Kinematics

• Frame of reference
• Motion in a straight line
• Position-time graph
• Speed and velocity
• Uniform and non-uniform motion
• Average speed and instantaneous velocity
• Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment)
• Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
• Scalar and vector quantities:
• Position and displacement vectors,
• General vectors,
• General vectors and notation,
• Equality of vectors,
• Multiplication of vectors by a real number;
• Addition and subtraction of vectors.
• Relative velocity.
• Unit vectors.
• Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.
• Scalar and Vector products of Vectors.
• Motion in a plane.
• Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion.
• Uniform circular motion.

## UNIT III: Laws of Motion

• Intuitive concept of force.
• Inertia,
• Newton’s first law of motion;
• Momentum
• Newton’s second law of motion;
• Impulse;
• Newton’s third law of motion.
• Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
• Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
• Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
• Dynamics of uniform circular motion.
• Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

## UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power

• Work done by a constant force and variable force;
• Kinetic energy,
• Work-energy theorem,
• Power.
• Notion of potential energy,
• Potential energy of a spring,
• Conservative forces;
• Conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);
• Non-conservative forces;
• Motion in a vertical circle,
• Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

## UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

• Centre of mass of a two-particle system,
• Momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
• Centre of mass of a rigid body;
• Centre of mass of uniform rod.
• Moment of a force,
• Torque, angular momentum,
• Conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
• Equilibrium of rigid bodies,
• Rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion,
• Comparison of linear and rotational motions;
• Moment of inertia,
• Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).
• Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

## UNIT VI: Gravitation

• Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.
• The universal law of gravitation.
• Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
• Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.
• Escape velocity,
• Orbital velocity of a satellite.
• Geostationary satellites.

## UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

• Elastic behavior,
• Stress-strain relationship.
• Hooke’s law,
• Young’s modulus,
• Bulk modulus,
• Shear,
• Modulus of rigidity,
• Poisson’s ratio;
• Elastic energy.
• Viscosity,
• Stokes’ law,
• Terminal velocity,
• Reynold’s number,
• Streamline andcturbulent flow.
• Critical velocity,
• Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
• Surface energy and surface tension,
• Angle of contact,
• Excess of pressure,
• Application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion;
• Thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases.
• Anomalous expansion.
• Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv-
• Calorimetry;
• Change of state – latent heat.
• Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity,
• Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation,
• Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
• Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

## UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics

• Thermal equilibrium
• Definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics).
• Heat, work and internal energy.
• First law of thermodynamics.
• Second law of the thermodynamics:
• Reversible and irreversible processes.
• Heat engines and refrigerators.

## UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

• Equation of state of a perfect gas,
• Work done on compressing a gas.
• Kinetic theory of gases:
• Assumptions, concept of pressure.
• Kinetic energy and temperature;
• Degrees of freedom,
• Law of equipartition of energy (statement only)
• Application to specific heat capacities of gases;
• Concept of mean free path.

## UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves

• Periodic motion-
• Period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.
• Periodic functions.
• Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation;
• Phase;
• Oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant;
• Energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies;
• Simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period;
• Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only),
• Resonance.
• Wave motion.
• Longitudinal and transverse waves,
• Speed of wave motion.
• Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
• Principle of superposition of waves,
• Reflection of waves,
• Standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
• Fundamental mode and harmonics.
• Beats. Doppler effect.