As we know, an atom consists of electron protons and neutrons.
The protons and neutrons reside within the nucleus and are collectively called nucleons.
The protons carry a positive charge whereas neutrons are electrically negative.
The electrons revolve around the nucleus in specific pathways called orbits or shells.
The electrons are negatively charged particles.
An atom as a whole is electrically stable with no net charge. This means that the positive charge imparted by the protons is neutralized by the negatively charged electrons. This is only possible when the electrons and protons are equal in number.
The number of protons contained within the nucleus of an atom is called atomic number