[Chemistry] Structure of atoms

Reading Time: 5 minutes

INTRODUCTION

  • After the discovery of subatomic particles in the late 1800s and early 1900s, scientists began experimentation in order to provide a model that best explains the structure of an atom.
  • Rutherford’s model was most widely accepted but had some defects.
  • In order to cope with the defects in Rutherford’s model, Neil Bohr postulated his version of atomic model which is the most widely accepted model.
  • Neil Bohr based his model on Plank’s quantum theory and proposed a model which provides the best possible explanation for the structure of atom.
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[Chemistry] Electronic Configuration

Reading Time: 6 minutes

INTRODUCTION

Electronic configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in orbitals.

REPRESENTATION OF ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION

A detailed method for writing the electronic configuration of an atom that include information about the number of electrons in each subshell is shown below for hydrogen.

Another way of representing the electronic configuration of an atom is a diagram that places electrons in boxes.

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[Chemistry] Concept of Shell, Subshell and Orbital

Reading Time: 7 minutes

INRODUCTION

The atom consists of protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons reside within the nucleus whereas electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed orbits or shells. These shells are complex regions further consisting of subshells and orbitals.

SHELLS

  • Electrons are arranged in shells (energy levels) around the nucleus.
  • Energy levels are represented by the symbol n and are numbered according to how far they are from the nucleus.
  • The lowest energy level n=1 is closest to the nucleus, the energy level n=2 is further out and so on.
  • The different energy levels are designated by the alphabets K, L, M and so on.
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[Chemistry] Dual Nature Of Matter And Light

Reading Time: 4 minutes

BACKGROUND

  • Plank’s quantum theory tells us that light shows a dual character. It behaves both as a material particle and as a wave.
  • This idea was extended to matter in 1924 by Louis De-Broglie.

DE-BROGLEI’S CONCEPT

  • According to De-Broglie, all matter particles in motion have a dual character.
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