Biology syllabus-wise notes (Class 11)

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UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD

1.1 What is living?

1.2 Biodiversity

1.3 Three domains of life

1.4 Systematics; Binomial nomenclature

1.5 Taxonomy; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy

1.6 Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens

1.7 Need for classification

1.8 Five kingdom classification

1.9 Salient features and classification of Monera

1.10 Monera

1.11 Salient features and classification of Protista

1.12 Salient features and classification of Fungi; lichens

1.13 Viruses and Viroids

1.14 Salient features and classification of plants into major Groups-

1.14.1 Algae

1.14.2 Bryophytes

1.14.3 Pteridophytes

1.14.4 Gymnosperms

1.14.5 Angiosperms

1.15 Salient features and classification of animals;

1.16 Non-chordate up to phyla level

1.17 Chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples)

UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS

2.1 Morphology and modifications; Tissues

2.2 Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants:

2.2.1 Root,

2.2.2 stem,

2.2.3 leaf,

2.2.4 inflorescence- cymose and racemose,

2.2.5 flower,

2.2.6 fruit, seed.

2.3 Animal tissues

2.4 Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach).

UNIT III: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

3.1 Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life;

3.2 Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell

3.3 Cell envelope-cell membrane, cell wall

3.4 Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra-structure and function)

3.5 Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.

3.6 Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules

3.7 Importance of water

3.8 Structure and function of proteins,

3.9 Carbohydrates

3.10 Lipids

3.11 Nucleic acids;

3.12 Enzyme action.

3.13 Enzyme-types, properties.

3.14 B Cell division: Cell cycle

3.15 Mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

UNIT IV: Plant Physiology

4.1 Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients

4.2 Cell to cell Transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport

4.3 Plant – water relations– Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis;

4.4 Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;

4.5 Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata

4.6 Uptake and translocation of mineral Nutrients

4.7 Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis

4.8 Diffusion of gases (brief mention).

4.9 Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role

4.10 Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity

4.11 Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition

4.12 Nitrogen Metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

4.13 Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea)

4.14 Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis

4.15 Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation;

4.16 Chemiosmotic hypothesis

4.17 Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways

4.18 Factors affecting photosynthesis.

4.19 Respiration: Exchange gases;

4.20 Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic)

4.21 TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic)

4.22 Energy relations Number of ATP molecules generated

4.23 Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

4.24 Plant growth and development: Seed germination

4.25 Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate

4.26 Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and Re-differentiation

4.27 Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell

4.28 Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA

4.29 Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

UNIT V: Human Physiology

5.1 Digestion and absorption

5.2 Alimentary canal and digestive glands

5.3 Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones

5.4 Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats

5.5 Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats;

5.6 Egestion

5.7 Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

5.8 Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only);

5.9 Respiratory system in humans

5.10 Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans

5.11 Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration

5.12 Respiratory volumes

5.13 Disorders related to Respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.

5.14 Body fluids and circulation

5.15 Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood;

5.16 Composition of lymph and its function

5.17 Human circulatory System-Structure of human heart and blood vessels

5.18 Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation

5.19 Regulation of cardiac activity

5.20 Disorders of circulatory system; Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

5.21 Excretory products and their elimination

5.22 Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism;

5.23 Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation

5.24 Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function

5.25 Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus

5.26 Role of other organs in excretion;

5.27 Disorders; Uremia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.

5.28 Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular

5.29 Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction;

5.30 Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus);

5.31 Joints

5.32 Disorders of muscular and skeletal System-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

5.33 Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves

5.34 Nervous system in humans

5.35 central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system

5.36 Generation and conduction of nerve impulse

5.37 Reflex action

5.38 Sense organs

5.39 Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

5.40 Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones;

5.41 Human endocrine System-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonad

5.42 Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea)

5.43 Role of hormones as messengers and regulators

5.44 Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).